No fracking, drilling or digging: it’s the only way to save life on Earth

29 09 2016

“Do they understand what they have signed? Plainly they do not. Governments such as ours, now ratifying the Paris agreement on climate change, haven’t the faintest idea what it means – either that or they have no intention of honoring it” writes George Monbiot in the Guardian…… but does George himself ‘get’ what he’s writing….?

Any regular visitor to this blog will know I entirely agree with the title of Monbiot’s thesis. But at least, I know it also means the end of civilisation as we know it.

Using the industry’s own figures, it shows that burning the oil, gas and coal in the fields and mines that is already either in production or being developed, is likely to take the global temperature rise beyond 2C. And even if all coal mining were to be shut down today, the oil and gas lined up so far would take it past 1.5C. The notion that we can open any new reserves, whether by fracking for gas, drilling for oil or digging for coal, without scuppering the Paris commitments is simply untenable.

Too right. Especially as we have pretty well already reached the 1.5°C threshold according to several sources.


The only means of reconciling governments’ climate change commitments with the opening of new coal mines, oilfields and fracking sites is carbon capture and storage: extracting carbon dioxide from the exhaust gases of power stations and burying it in geological strata. But despite vast efforts to demonstrate the technology, it has not been proved at scale, and appears to be going nowhere. Our energy policies rely on vapourware.

All this nonsense is a substitute for a simple proposition: stop digging. There is only one form of carbon capture and storage that is scientifically proven, and which can be deployed immediately: leaving fossil fuels in the ground.

So far so good…..

[governments’] choices are as follows. First: a gradual, managed decline of existing production and its replacement with renewable energy and low-carbon infrastructure, which offer great potential for employment. Second: allowing fossil fuel production to continue at current rates for a while longer, followed by a sudden and severe termination of the sector, with dire consequences for both jobs and economies. Third: continuing to produce fossil fuels as we do today, followed by climate breakdown. Why is this a hard choice to make?

But George…… if we are at 1.5°C already, not even choice 1 is viable….


The Arctic ice death spiral has lost no momentum, with current volumes at the lowest they have ever been recorded, and cruise ships actually being sent to the North West Passage for the filthy rich to see the product of their handy work……

Only an economic collapse can fix this ongoing insanity. At least it’s interesting to see Monbiot making no mention of nuclear power in this Guardian article. Has he changed his mind, or was it a mere omission..?


A revolution disguised as organic gardening: in memory of Bill Mollison

29 09 2016

Samuel Alexander, University of Melbourne

It is with great sadness that I acknowledge the passing of Bill Mollison on Saturday, September 24 (1928-2016). He was one of the true pioneers of the modern environmental movement, not just in Australia but globally.

Best known as co-originator of the “permaculture” concept with David Holmgren, and recipient of the Right Livelihood Award in 1981, Mollison helped develop a holistic body of environmental theory and practice which is widely recognised as one of Australia’s finest and most original contributions to the global sustainability challenge.

A brief history of permaculture

Mollison grew up in Stanley, Tasmania. After leaving school at 15 he moved through a range of occupations before joining the CSIRO in the Wildlife Survey Section in 1954, where he developed his research experience and understanding of ecological systems.

He was later appointed to the University of Tasmania, which is where, in 1974, he met the brilliant and radical young research student, David Holmgren

The collaboration between Mollison and Holmgren resulted in the permaculture concept, culminating in the publication of their seminal work, Permaculture One in 1978, which sparked the global movement.

What is permaculture?

Permaculture defies simple definition and understanding. The term began as a fusion of “permanent” and “agriculture”. Even back in the 1970s, Mollison and Holmgren could see how destructive industrial agriculture was to natural habitats and topsoils, and how dependent it was on finite fossil fuels.permacultureone

It was clear that these systems were unsustainable, a position ratified by scientific reports today which expose the alarming effects industrial agriculture has on biodiversity and climate stability. The two pioneering ecologists began to wonder what a “permanent agriculture” would look like. Thus permaculture was born.

In the broadest terms, permaculture is a design system that seeks to work with the laws of nature rather than against them. It aims to efficiently meet human needs without degrading the ecosystems we all rely on to flourish.

Put otherwise, permaculture is an attempt to design human systems and practices in ways that mimic the cycles of nature to eliminate waste, increase resilience and allow for the just and harmonious co-existence of human beings with other species.

A wide range of design principles were developed to help put these broad ideas and values into practice. This practical application and experimentation is what really defines permaculture. Before all else, participants in the movement get their hands in the soil and seek to walk the talk.

There is now a vast array of excellent books detailing the practice of permaculture, as well as outstanding websites such as the Permaculture Research Institute for those wanting to learn, share, explore and connect.

Although permaculture was initially focused on sustainable methods of organic food production, the concept soon evolved to embrace the broader design challenges of sustainable living – not just “permanent agriculture”, but “permanent culture”.

Today we face profound environmental and social challenges: ecological overshoot, climate instability, looming resource scarcity, and inequitable concentrations of wealth. In such a world the permaculture ethics of “care of people, care of planet, and fair share” imply radical changes to the way we live with each other and on the planet.

As well as transitioning away from fossil-fuel-dependent agriculture toward local organic production, permaculture implies the embrace of renewable energy systems, “simple living” lifestyles of modest consumption, as well as retrofitting the suburbs for sustainability and energy efficiency.

From a grassroots or community perspective, the transition towns and ecovillage movements acknowledge their profound debts to permaculture.

From a macroeconomic perspective, permaculture implies a degrowth transition to a steady-state economy that operates within the sustainable limits of the planet. Permaculture even has implications for what alternative forms of global development might look like.

So, in answer to the complex question “what is permaculture?”, perhaps the most concise response is to say with others that “permaculture is a revolution disguised as organic gardening”.

Bill Mollison’s legacy: a challenge to us all

Despite developing into a thriving global movement, permaculture still has not received the full attention it deserves. As the world continues to degrade ecosystems through the poor design of social and economic systems, it has never been clearer that permaculture is a way of life whose time has come.

Nevertheless, permaculture is not a panacea that can answer all challenges. Permaculture is not without its critics (see, for example, here and here). But I would argue that the lens of permaculture can certainly illuminate the path to a more sustainable and flourishing way of life, such that we ignore its insights at our own peril.

Thank you, Bill Mollison, for the inspiration and insight – and the challenge you have left us with to design a civilisation that regenerates rather than degrades our one and only planet. May humanity learn the lessons of permaculture sooner rather than later.

Only then, I suspect, will “Uncle Bill” rest in peace.

The Conversation

Samuel Alexander, Research fellow, Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, University of Melbourne

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

RIP Bill Mollison……

26 09 2016

You won’t see mention of Bill Mollison’s passing away in the media today – just the usual boring stuff about a couple of good looking Hollywood actors getting divorced or TV programs about baking cakes or who will make the next footy grand final….. In case you are wondering who he was, Bill was a one time Tasmanian shark fisherman and hunter who co-founded the permaculture movement which can be neatly encapsulated as the notion of people living in abundance within nature’s systems.


Here is his acceptance speech when he won the 1981 “Right Livelihood Award” also known as the “Alternative Nobel Prize”………….:

“I grew up in a small village in Tasmania. I was born in 1928, but my village might have existed in the 11th century. We didn’t have any cars; everything that we needed we made. We made our own boots, our own metal works, we caught fish, grew food, made bread. I didn’t know anybody who lived there who had one job, or anything that you could define as a job. Everybody had several jobs.

As a child I lived in a sort of a dream and I didn’t really awake until I was about 28. I spent most of my working life in the bush or on the sea. I fished, I hunted for my living. It wasn’t until the 1950s that large parts of the system in which I lived were disappearing. First, fish stocks became extinct. Then I noticed the seaweed around the shorelines had gone. Large patches of forest began to die. I hadn’t realised until those things were gone that I’d become very fond of them, that I was in love with my country. This is about the last place I want to be; I would like to be sitting in the bush watching wallabies. However, if I don’t stand here there will be no bush and no wallabies to watch. The Japanese have come to take away most of our forest. They are using it for newsprint. I notice that you are putting it in your waste‑paper basket. That’s what has happened to the life systems I grew up in.

It’s always a mark of danger to me when large biological systems start to collapse, when we lose whole stocks of fish, as we’ve lost whole stocks of herring, and many stocks of sardines, when we lose huge areas of the sea bottom which were productive in scallops and oysters. When we enquire why this happens, it comes back to one thing: the use of energy sources not derived from the biological system.

Dr. Sternglass, who was a pupil of Einstein’s, has followed the drift of radioactive dust from Three Mile Island. The newspapers say: ‘Nobody died at Three Mile Island’. Dr. Sternglass says that 30,000 children are now dead, died under the cloud drifts of hypothyroidosis, and many thousands are yet to die. Across this country, Russia, Germany, Japan, Canada and the United States, drifts an air system, carrying not only radioactives, but highly corrosive acids: sulphuric acids from the burning of coal, and nitric acids from motor vehicle exhausts.

The snow which we measured in Vermont a few months back had pH values of 1.9 to 2.5, which is much more acid than vinegar, more acid than any biological system can stand. We cannot find in the northern part of the United States or in Germany waters of pH higher than 4. Fish can’t breed in those waters, frogs can’t live there, and salamanders are extinct. Forests started to die in 1920, soon after the coal era started. Chestnuts have disappeared on the American continent by 80%, the Beech trees have disappeared. The Oaks are beginning to die throughout America, the pines are dying in Germany (they’re losing 80,000 hectares this year) and many of them are now dying in Japan. The Eucalyptus are dying in Australia at 14% per annum. It won’t be very long before you won’t have any forests to throw away in your garbage cans. It’s obvious to simple people like myself who go out on foot to find out what’s happening that the Northern hemisphere will not be occupied by man for very many more years while he uses coal, petrol and radioactives. I wonder what happened to make us abandon the sort of life that I grew up in, in which we could sustain our lives indefinitely and in which no great systems died. I don’t believe that we lead a better life, that we are any happier than I was and the children in that town still are.

I withdrew from society about 1970 because I had been long in opposition to the systems that I saw were killing us. I decided it was no good persisting with opposition that got you nowhere. I thought for two years. I wanted to return to society but I wanted to come back only with something very positive. I did not want to oppose anything again and waste my time. Somewhere someone had given me Mao‑Tse‑Tung’s little red book. I didn’t understand it very well, in fact it was very difficult for me to read. But, at one point when he was talking about an attack on the city of Tai Ching, his advice to his army was ‘Don’t attack Tai Ching: it’s too heavily defended. Go around it and Tai Ching will fall.’ So I’ve been going around the things that I think are killing us.

When I came back into our society I came back with a system I call Permaculture, a way in which man can live on the earth. To me we’re not any more important a form of life than any other life form. Those of you, very few, who have been alone in forests for a long time, more than five weeks, know that you totally lose identity as a human being. You can’t distinguish yourself from the trees, you can’t distinguish yourself from any other living thing there. All aboriginal people, all tribal people, have to undergo such a period on their own in the environment. Afterwards, they never again can see themselves as separate: man here and tree there. You become as though you are simply a part of life.

The only safe energy systems are those derived from biological systems. A New Guinea gardener can walk through the gates of his garden taking one unit of energy and hand out seventy. A modern farmer who drives a tractor through the gate of his farm takes a thousand units of energy in and gives one back. Who is the most sophisticated agriculturist? We are getting rid of our soil even faster than we are destroying our atmosphere. For every one of us there is a loss of ten tons of soil a year. Nature can only replace one or two tons. We will leave our children an earth in which there is no soil or drinkable water.

We ourselves have always been left out of the energy equations. I’m the only machine I know which can fuel itself: I can make the food upon which I run. Give me a few friends and I can look after myself and many others. This will do me for an alternative energy source. We’ve never been taught to have confidence in ourselves as our own salvation. All the books you can buy on gardening are books on technique. All the books on strategy are wrong because they are one-dimensional. Multi‑dimensional systems will out‑yield one‑dimensional systems hundreds of times. Polycultures will always out‑yield monocultures. The Permaculture system is a safe way of a sustained ecology; it is in itself a safe and sustainable energy system.

In the days of Carl Linnaeus we were still naming things. For a century or so after Linnaeus we were finding out how they functioned. Today we know some of the principles that make them work but just as we’ve reached this stage, they have commenced to fall apart. We estimate that of the species that we can see and count, we will lose some 35,000 in the next one and a half decades. All my life we’ve been at war against nature. I just pray that we lose that war. There are no winners in that war.

A couple of years ago I resigned from a job at the university and threw myself at an advanced age into an uncertain future. I decided to do nothing else but to try to persuade people to build good biological systems. I existed for quite a while by catching fish and pulling potatoes. Then I started to make some money by designing sustainable systems for people, for their own houses and for their villages. Since then I’ve been able to train 20 people at a time. I have trained 400 young people who are now designing systems throughout the U.S. and Australia. In the coming year I will be training people in Germany and Brazil. We’ve set up a sort of brotherhood ‑ and sisterhood, because half of us are women. I don’t believe women are any better designers than men but I think they know more about living systems.

We must make a very large movement towards a very quiet sort of revolution. We will go on training people until we have saturated all countries. What we try to do is to integrate all things that plants and animals will do with our own lives and our structures. It’s possible to design entirely biological systems in which you could live, but we have to start with a place like Stockholm, which is about as abiological as you can get. There are simple things that anybody can do to look after themselves. Every city, for example, can produce its own food.

We are faced with an absolute choice: We can build the sort of cities we are building, continue to accumulate resources and power to run around like blowflies in cars, and be killed before long. Or we can live easily on the earth. It’s possible for us to construct biological systems that work, it’s well within our capacity. For a fraction of the cost of Swedish armaments Sweden could become an entire system like this. It’s up to you, it’s entirely up to you. I hope you all go back to work tomorrow and take your wages. Good luck to you.”

Why is emergency-scale climate action necessary?

24 09 2016


The world now faces a climate emergency. Our scientists tell us. We know it. Slowly the political elite are realising that the current international climate policy-making paradigm is dying of failure. Recognition of the climate emergency is now written into the platform for the Democratic Party for the 2016 US presidential election.

So how does our scientific understanding guide as to constructing a new way of looking at the challenge, as to what is happening, what is safe, and how we should respond? The Victorian Climate Action Network held a workshop on these questions on 11 September 2016. The slides below were the contribution by David Spratt to the first session, which asked the question ‘Why is emergency-scale action necessary?’


On the Thermodynamic Black Hole…..

23 09 2016

I recently heard Dmitry Orlov speaking to Jim Kunstler regarding the Dunbar Number in which he came up with the term ‘Thermodynamic Trap’. As the ERoEI of every energy source known to humanity starts collapsing over the energy cliff, I thought it was more like a thermodynamic black hole, sucking all the energy into itself at an accelerating pace… and if you ever needed proof of this blackhole, then Alice Friedemann’s latest book, “When the trucks stop running” should do the trick.


Alice Friedemann

Chris Martenson interviewed Alice in August 2016 about the future of the trucking industry in the face of Peak Oil, especially now the giant Bakken shale oil field in the US has peaked, joining the conventional oil sources. This podcast is available for download here.trucks_stop_running

Alice sees no solutions through running trucks with alternative energy sources or fuels. I see an increasing number of stories about electric trucks, but none of them make any sense because the weight of the batteries needed to move such large vehicles, especially the long haul variety, is so great it hardly leaves space for freight.

A semi trailer hauling 40 tonnes 1000km needs 1000L of liquid fuel to achieve the task. That’s 10,000kWh of electric energy equivalent. Just going by the Tesla Wall data sheet, a 6.4kWh battery pack weighs in at 97kg. So at this rate, 10,000kWh would weigh 150 tonnes….. so even to reduce the weight of the battery bank down to the 40 tonne carrying capacity of the truck, efficiency would have to be improved four fold, and you still wouldn’t have space for freight..

There are not enough materials on the entire planet to make enough battery storage to replace oil, except for Sodium Sulfur batteries, a technology I had never heard of before. A quick Google found this…..:

The active materials in a Na/S battery are molten sulfur as the positive electrode and molten sodium as the negative. The electrodes are separated by a solid ceramic, sodium alumina, which also serves as the electrolyte. This ceramic allows only positively charged sodium-ions to pass through. During discharge electrons are stripped off the sodium metal (one negatively charged electron for every sodium atom) leading to formation of the sodium-ions that then move through the electrolyte to the positive electrode compartment. The electrons that are stripped off the sodium metal move through the circuit and then back into the battery at the positive electrode, where they are taken up by the molten sulfur to form polysulfide. The positively charged sodium-ions moving into the positive electrode compartment balance the electron charge flow. During charge this process is reversed. The battery must be kept hot (typically > 300 ºC) to facilitate the process (i.e., independent heaters are part of the battery system). In general Na/S cells are highly efficient (typically 89%).


Na/S battery technology has been demonstrated at over 190 sites in Japan. More than 270 MW of stored energy suitable for 6 hours of daily peak shaving have been installed. The largest Na/S installation is a 34-MW, 245-MWh unit for wind stabilization in Northern Japan. The demand for Na/S batteries as an effective means of stabilizing renewable energy output and providing ancillary services is expanding. U.S. utilities have deployed 9 MW for peak shaving, backup power, firming windcapacity, and other applications. Projections indicate that development of an additional 9 MW is in-progress.

I immediately see a problem with keeping batteries at over 300° in a post fossil fuel era… but there’s more….

Alice has worked out that Na/S battery storage for just one day of US electricity generation would weigh 450 million tons, cover 923 square miles (2390km², or roughly the area of the whole of the Australian Capital Territory!), and cost 41 trillion dollars….. and according to European authorities, 6 to 30 days of storage is what would be required in the real world.

The disruption to the supply lines of our ‘just in time’ world caused by trucks no longer running is too much to even think about.

Empty supermarket shelves, petrol stations with no petrol, even ATMs with no money and pubs with no beer come to mind. I remember seeing signs on the Bruce highway back in Queensland stating “Trucks keep Australia going”.  Well, oil keeps trucks running; for how much longer is the real question.


Some excitement at the Fanny Farm…..

18 09 2016

It’s raining. Quite a bit actually, for this neck of the woods, 8mm so far today, and it’s only mid afternoon. What else is a blogger to do in this sort of weather but…. blog!  The green manure crop is doing well, and should be plainly visible by the time Glenda arrives here next weekend…..

On Friday, I drove my French wwoofer to Buckland, a whole 130km away. I did this because she agreed to pay me her bus fare towards my petrol costs, and I wanted to see the permaculture property she was moving to. It also meant she’d only have to spend an hour and a half in my ute as opposed to four hours in buses… Then on the way back, I could conveniently pick up two IBC’s (which stands for the enigmatic intermediate bulk container) and are basically 1000L plastic cubes inside a metal cage for holding, in my case, water. Then while driving back through Hobart, I was able to pick up a second dipole circuit breaker for the power station, and a new pump for filling above mentioned IBC’s from the dam….

Paul, who owns and runs the Tiger Hill property I took Laureen to, took the time to show me around…. What I found fascinating was the way some permies take on challenges, just because they can! Paul, it turns out, comes from a heavy machinery driving background, working in mines. Not the sort of bloke one would expect to turn into a permaculture greenie, but there you go…..


Over the past five years, Paul has concentrated on earthworks, which this place really needs, as it’s normally dry as a bone, with only 300mm of annual rainfall. Not that this was evident on my visit, Tiger Hill had just been blessed with 65mm of rain just the day before, and there was water everywhere, which clearly demonstrated the efficacy of his swales….

His biggest issue, as far as I was concerned, is the prolific wildlife. The grass looked like it had been mown to within an inch of its life, and there were wallaby scats everywhere….. and I mean, everywhere! This means his extensive garden – he sometimes has as many as 12 wwoofers working there – has to be entirely covered with poly pipe hoops and netting… and because he still has no animals of his own yet because he apparently flies in and out of Tasmania frequently, most of his efforts go to feeding the wildlife, except for the netted bits. He compensates for the lack of animal manures by having more composting toilets 20160917_153649than I cared to count, he is indeed big in humanure!

The reason I bought another dipole circuit breaker for the power station is that I have moved the freezer into the container. Everything is now switched on and operational, but the freezer alone is not enough to load up the batteries, so I have put a breaker on each string of panels so I can switch one off when there’s an overabundance of sun…. this not being the case today, both strings generated barely enough to cover the 1.3kWh that the freezer consumed in the past 24 hours.

Mind you, the freezer probably worked extra hard after being moved, and later filled with (almost) a whole lamb purchased from next door.

Soon, I will also have my new pump hooked up to fill one of those ICB’s so that I can water the crops that will be planted in the new poly tunnel. Which leads me to the excitement…….

I recently found a two inch poly pipe going under the road, from the apple orchard to the base of the dam wall. The dam has a 100mm sewer plastic pipe going through it, with this weird S bend glued to the pipe, which has a garden variety tap attached to it, and I mean literally. I’ve been using this water for the chooks, and filling bathtubs whenever I’ve been agisting other people’s animals on our land. The whole setup, I thought, was very dodgy, but I was about to find out how dodgy very soon.


I unloaded one of the IBC’s next to the pipe outlet in the orchard; this will be very handy come the day I have ducks and geese in there, which need copious amounts of water.

I then fed a garden hose through the pipe, and pulled it out the other end to connect to the tap where the dam water comes out….. There’s a lot of friction in a twenty metre long garden hose, and not that much water pressure when the outlet of said hose is only a couple of metres below the dam water level…. the result was a mere trickle coming out the hose.

Dissatisfied with the flow rate, I went back to the tap to make sure it had been turned on properly……. and the whole end of the dodgy connection simply fell off the pipe! The S bend and the sewer pipes are made of different plastics, and gluing them together was never going to work. I could throttle whoever did this…!

To say I had a brain meltdown is an understatement. I tried to push it back on, but the non existent pressure suddenly made its presence felt, and there was no way I was going to fix this on my own. Terror set in… visions of an empty dam upon Glenda’s arrival next weekend clouded all the thinking I was still capable of, and I rang my trusty neighbour for help. Except his phone was flat! So I drove over to find him, which wasn’t easy without the spectacles I discarded after being sprayed with water from head to toe!

Matt understandingly jumped in my ute, and as he, unlike me, was thinking clearly, came up with a plan that I can now report worked to perfection. I guided the fittings into position, and while I was sprayed with water, he levered them into place against the pressure with a crowbar…… a few self tapping screws to replace the glue that failed, and voila, problem solved.20160918_152700

I wish I had taken photos of the gushing water….. it must have been coming out at easily twenty litres a second, but I sort of had my hands full at the time, and I can only show you what the repaired outlet looks like. Which reminds me, I must put some screws into the other end that didn’t fall off, before it does! Then I can get rid of that ridiculous tap, replace it with a proper valve, and put a bit of one inch poly pipe on it instead of that useless garden hose…. the IBC did eventually fill up, but it is very very slow.

Having calmed down, I then started wondering how long it would have actually taken to drain my 10 million litre pond at twenty litres a second…… and it turns out, it would be about three weeks! All that panic and adrenaline for absolutely nothing….. after fixing the problem, Matt and I walked up the dam wall to inspect the damage…… and you couldn’t even tell it had happened, even after a good thirty minute flush.

Life is full of little lessons, and you learn them one at a time.

First anniversary……

14 09 2016

One year ago today, Richard and I arrived at the Fanny Farm to take permanent possession of our new project…… where has the time gone? Even though you can see where I’ve been (or at least where our money‘s been..!), it still feels like I’ve achieved less than I had planned.

I’m probably just fretting because it so much feels like we are all running out of time, especially after reading Nicole’s articles on negative interest rates.

20160911_12493420160908_130624This week, with the assistance of my young French wwoofer, a new polytunnel has been built (still needs a door and a vent), 200m² of new ground has been tilled, composted, and planted with green manure (which has started germinating, yeah….. hope it rains a bit more tonight); and just this afternoon, after watching a permaculture orchard movie in Cygnet promoted by the Huon Producers’ Network last week, we have made twenty odd Codling Moth traps that the Canadian owner of the orchard in the film swears by.

20160914_171419They are made of recycled milk bottles, drilled with a 20mm hole in two sides to allow the moths to enter the traps after being attracted by the molasses and water mixture poured therein….

Will it work?  One can only hope so. If it works in Canada, there’s no reason why it can’t work in Tasmania.

Look hard enough, and you will see my Geeveston Fannies are trying hard to form flower buds, so hopefully we have beaten the moths to it!

The little critters almost wiped out my crop of Pink Ladies (though, amazingly, hardly touched the Fannies, go figure..


Codling Moth

The other good news is that my neighbour John came over with his laptop and worked out that the reason I could not reset my Victron inverter’s settings by autodetecting the port it was plugged into was that I had to tell it which port to use….! So much for technology supposed to make things easy.

Now the inverter is reset to operate at the Nickel Iron batteries’ voltage settings, my power station is operational, and I will soon move my freezer out of the shed and into the container to reduce my power bills and load the batteries, which they need to build up capacity, I am told….

I’ll soon have to buy a pump to get water out of my dam so I can do some irrigating, and it will all be solar powered. There is progress every day, it’s just it doesn’t really feel like it to me…… watch this space, I guess.