Is our future our past?

7 07 2016

Chock
At ten months, Chock the ox is already earning his keep around the farm. Photo: Steven French Family.

If there’s one thing most post peak oil commentators have given too little consideration to it’s how goods will be moved and how farms will function in our scary and fast approaching future.

Sure there’s the fraternity that talk about bicycles and walking and they’re on the right track, particularly if you’re lucky or wise enough to reside in a city or village.

However a means of energy or transport that doesn’t involve some form of technical reliance such as electric cars, high speed rail, nuclear power, wind turbines, solar panels or waver power, seems to be strangely missing from the dialogue. Certainly low-tech conveyances such as barges and sailing ships occasionally get a mention, and rightly so. But when the blindingly obvious is mentioned eyes often glaze over.

Horsepower

The one thing that’s almost always overlooked is using animals for transport and farm work.

Pretty much until the early 1900s it was animal power that kept civilization going. Yet today, a little over a half century since many rural people still used animal power, using animals to produce actual horsepower seems unimaginable.

Yet, a snapshot of 1900 could be a view of our future.

Back to the future

I’m lucky enough to live on the island of Tasmania, one of the seven states of Australia.

Much of Tasmania is highly fertile and we have a great climate. Although Tasmania may seem remote, our farmers have always been as keen to modernize in ways akin to our farming cousins in the US. The widespread adoption of tractors for farming happened here around the time of World War II.

But the time that I really want to focus on is the 1930s, when my parents were growing up and most farmers still relied on horses. The maternal side of my family farmed only a couple of miles away. Both families’ lifestyles and farming methods were similar and would have been typical of almost everyone who worked the land in those days. They had:

  • No electricity
  • No telephone
  • No internal combustion engine on the property

My dad’s parents did have a car but my mother’s family never drove. Nan and Grandpa never had a driver’s license even though they farmed another property a fifteen minute bike ride away.

A good living

The point is that they enjoyed a good standard of living, certainly by the standards of the 1930s but also, I suspect, by today’s standards. There was a vibrant social life centered around the little township of Whitemore, with several sporting teams and social functions usually held two or three nights a week. These people were not country yokels by any means. They were articulate and well traveled. Their farms were highly productive. And they used virtually no petroleum.

Yes, they had a little kerosene for their lanterns, and maybe grease and oil were used to lubricate moving parts on the horse-drawn equipment. But their use of petroleum was pretty much nonexistent compared with today.

There was a train-line not too far away and the children rode their bikes to the station to catch a steam-train to high school, a 45 minute trip. Nowadays the local children catch a bus for a one hour trip to their nearest high school. Much of the farm produce was delivered to the railway station by wagon where it was transported to markets.

Their water supply was pumped from the well thanks to a windmill and a hand pump.

Man and beast alone

Paddocks were plowed, worked and sown with horses. At harvest time horses pulled binders which tied the crops into sheaves. The sheaves were later forked onto horse drawn wagons and made into huge stacks not too far from the farmyard. During early winter a wood-fired traction engine (steam-engine) pulled a drum from farm to farm. A drum is a huge threshing machine which took 15 men to operate. It was belt-driven from the traction engine’s flywheel and it threshed the grain from the straw. These drums were still working around Tasmanian into the 1950s. They can still be seen in operation at some of our historic farming field days.

The point that I’m belaboring and repeating is that these farms used almost no petroleum, were highly productive, and farming families and laborers enjoyed a good standard of living.

Could we return to this style of living and farming? The answer is yes, but with some not-insurmountable difficulties.

Ramping up to face the effects of peak oil

First the number of heavy horses required would take decades to breed up. Also there are very few people around with the ability to work heavy horses. It’s a skill that I suspect not everyone has the ability to acquire. An ill trained or poorly driven horse is dangerous and it can take years to learn the skill necessary to work a horse properly.

The answer is oxen (we call them bullocks here in Australia). There’s no shortage of cattle and they are much more placid and easier to train than horses. Also their harness requirements are minimal and they are easy to feed and maintain. The only downside is that oxen are slower than the horse but hey, that’s not so bad, is it?

Up until the mid 1800s all animal power on farms was supplied pretty much by oxen, although the farmer may have had a light horse for riding or to pull a cart. In most American Western movies and TV shows horses are pulling the covered wagons that made up the wagon trains. In actuality, these covered wagons were mainly drawn by oxen. Possibly a slower but certainly a more sensible option, ox could pretty much live off the land they were passing through and didn’t suffer from many off the health issues of the horse.

Could oxen save the day? Quite possibly. Cuban President Raul Castro recently called for ox to be used as beasts of burden as a way for the economically strapped communist country to ramp up food production while conserving energy.

Ramping up food production – conserving energy – a cash strapped economy – falling oil supply? Sounds familiar? How long before a leader of the western world pleads for a solution to the same problems? Or have they already but are looking in the wrong direction?

–Steven French for Transition Voice

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12 responses

7 07 2016
MargfromTassie

He’s rather cute. Err, Chock that is, although Mr French isn’t bad either 😉
So when are you getting your ox Mike?

8 07 2016
mikestasse

After the 4WD…!

8 07 2016
lemmiwinks

Ha! As usual the population elephant in the room is not addressed. Oh yes, won’t it be lovely and rustic with all the horses and bullocks and things? Yeah right! It’s laughable to pine for a “simpler time” from the comfort and convenience of our modern lives. It was bloody hard physical labour which is precisely why horses and bullocks disappeared faster than you can say Massey Ferguson. Never mind the fact that *productivity* is the key factor here. You ain’t gonna feed 7+billion on Amish farming practices.

There’s no plan to transition, to “downsize” on a global scale and it’s not really hard to see why. It’s a bit of an awkward conversation to have to say the least. Business as usual will continue until it can’t, end of story. So enjoy it I say! No point planning for the end of the world, first thing that will go out the window are social niceties taking with them all your careful planning.

As to the 4WD, I understand completely. My 2WD ute, even with mud terrain tyres on it’s little 14″ rims ceases to proceed up many of the gentle slopes around my place when it’s even slightly wet. Throw a couple of hundred kgs in the tray and the traction is remarkable though. Not overly practical however.

8 07 2016
mikestasse

I don’t think anyone is saying that we can ‘feed 7 billion’ by moving to the simpler way….. Massey Ferguson were simply more productive. Trust me, even farming with tractors is hard work!

8 07 2016
Harquebus

Thanks for this. I did not know that bullocks were easier to control and will keep this fact in mind.
Cheers.

8 07 2016
Nathan Surendran

Could dairy cows be put to this use? Is their physiology or temperament fundamentally wrong??

8 07 2016
Nathan Surendran

Also, what about beef cows (Angus, Hereford, Belted Galloway or one of the other myriad, less common breeds: http://www.therural.co.nz/livestock/cattle-breeds-in-new-zealand)…?

12 07 2016
Steven

As far as I know any breed of cattle are suitable

12 07 2016
Steven

Hello there. Dairy cattle are fine. Mine is half Jersey and there are lots of working Holsteins

13 07 2016
Nathan Surendran

Helpful info. Thanks! There’s plenty of dairy cows here in Southland, NZ. 🙂

10 07 2016
king1394

I think we also overlook the value human labour. So many people are unemployed because machinery has been allowed to replace them. For example, structures such as Roads were built by hand once (and not long ago). My father built houses (literally). So much of the work done by machines produces excess which is sold for second-rate purposes – trees are turned to wood pulp for paper and exported: an industry that would have no purpose without the machinery and trucking systems. Many more people could be employed if timber getting was done in the old way, with axes, and at the same time, forests would not be flattened.
We will be having to face decisions about whether there is potential for the old hand skills very soon.

11 07 2016
mikestasse

I recently saw a calculation for the worth of human labor equated to fossil fuel… and it worked out at 6 cents an hour!!

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